OpenSSL常用命令

 加密算法:

对称加密算法:

DES、IDEA、RC2、RC4、AES、Skipjack ……

非对称加密算法:

RSA、DSA、DiffieHellman、PKCS、PGP ……

单向的HASH算法属于报文摘要算法,虽然有些也出自OpenSSL库。
命令操作:

1、生成普通私钥:
[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl genrsa -out privatekey.key 1024

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus ….++++++ …….++++++ e is 65537 (0×10001)

2、生成带加密口令的密钥:

[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl genrsa -des3 -out privatekey.key 1024

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus …………++++++ …………………++++++ e is 65537 (0×10001) Enter pass phrase for privatekey.key: Verifying - Enter pass phrase for privatekey.key:

在生成带加密口令的密钥时需要自己去输入密码。对于为密钥加密现在提供了一下几种算法:
-des encrypt the generated key with DES in cbc mode

-des3 encrypt the generated key with DES in ede cbc mode (168 bit key)

-aes128, -aes192, -aes256 encrypt PEM output with cbc aes

去除密钥的口令:
[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl rsa -in privatekey.key -out

privatekey.key Enter pass phrase for privatekey.key: writing RSA key

通过生成的私钥去生成证书:

[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl req -new -x509 -key privatekey.key -out cacert.crt -days 1095

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request.

What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank.

—–

Country Name (2 letter code) [GB]:CN

State or Province Name (full name) [Berkshire]:beijing

Locality Name (eg, city) [Newbury]:beijing

Organization Name (eg, company) [My Company Ltd]:wondersoft

Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:develop

Common Name (eg, your name or your server’s hostname) []:WeiGW

Email Address []:weigongwan@sina.com

在生成证书的时候需要按照提示输入一些个人信息。

通过私钥生成公钥:

[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl rsa -in privatekey.key -pubout -out pubkey.key writing RSA key

格式转换:(证书、私钥、公钥)(PEM <—–>DER)

[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl x509 -in cacert.crt -inform. PEM -out cacert.der -outform. DER

[weigw@TEST src]$

[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl rsa -in privatekey.key -inform. PEM -out privatekey.der -outform. DER

writing RSA key

[weigw@TEST src]$ openssl rsa -pubin -in pubkey.key -inform. PEM -pubout -out pubkey.der -outform. DER

writing RSA key

从DER格式转换成PEM格式一样,就是把inform的格式改成DERoutform的格式改成PEM即可。

下面是一个服务器和客户端认证的证书、私钥生成方法:(server.crt、client.crt、ca.crt)

第一步: 生成私钥

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl genrsa -out server.key 1024

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus .++++++ ..
………++++++ e is 65537 (0×10001)

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl genrsa -out client.key 1024

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus …++++++ ……
……….++++++ e is 65537 (0×10001)

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl genrsa -out ca.key 1024

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus …….
..++++++ ………++++++ e is 65537 (0×10001)

[weigw@TEST bin]$

第三步: 申请证书(为请求文件签名)

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl ca -in server.csr -out server.crt -cert ca.crt -keyfile ca.key

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl ca -in client.csr -out client.crt -cert ca.crt -keyfile ca.key

如果在这步出现错误信息:

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl ca -in client.csr -out client.crt -cert ca.crt -keyfile ca.key

Using configuration from /usr/share/ssl/openssl.cnf I am unable to access the ./demoCA/newcerts directory ./demoCA/newcerts: No such file or directory

[weigw@TEST bin]$

自己手动创建一个CA目录结构:
[weigw@TEST bin]$ mkdir ./demoCA
[weigw@TEST bin]$ mkdir demoCA/newcerts
创建个空文件:
[weigw@TEST bin]$ vi demoCA/index.txt
向文件中写入01:
[weigw@TEST bin]$ vi demoCA/serial

合并证书文件(crt)和私钥文件(key):

[weigw@TEST bin]$ cat client.crt client.key > client.pem [weigw@TEST bin]$ cat server.crt server.key > server.pem

合并成pfx证书:

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in client.crt -inkey client.key -out client.p12

Enter Export Password:

Verifying - Enter Export Password:

[weigw@TEST bin]$openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in server.crt -inkey server.key -out server.p12
Enter Export Password:
Verifying - Enter Export Password:

文本化证书:

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl pkcs12 -in client.p12 -out client.txt Enter Import Password:

MAC verified OK

Enter PEM pass phrase: Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:

[weigw@TEST bin]$openssl pkcs12 -in server.p12 -out server.txt

Enter Import Password:

MAC verified OK

Enter PEM pass phrase: Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:

屏幕模式显式:(证书、私钥、公钥)

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl x509 -in client.crt -noout -text -modulus

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl rsa -in server.key -noout -text -modulus

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl rsa -in server.pub -noout -text -modulus

得到DH:

[weigw@TEST bin]$ openssl dhparam -out dh1024.pem 1024





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